His natural ebullience and gregariousness accompanied a deeper instinct to stand, and walk, alone. His character was a compound of ambition, an abundant self-confidence and that growing sense of calling.

In the summer of 1899, aged 21, Buchman graduated from Muhlenberg with honourable mention and the Butler Analogy Prize of twenty-five dollars in gold for an examination paper on Bishop Butler's classic defence of Christianity, Analogy of Religion.11 That same autumn, he went to Philadelphia to attend the Lutheran theological seminary at Mount Airy in Germantown. For the time being at least, his sense of calling was leading him towards the church of his forefathers.


Where references in the following list are attributed to Buchman they come from the book of his speeches, Remaking the World (Blandford, 1961). Quotes from Buchman which are not attributed were noted by friends at the time or in later recollections.

Dr Morris H. Martin, who was Buchman's secretary for the last twenty-five years of his life, has made available to me an unpublished biography in various drafts, as well as his private diaries for certain years and various occasional records of particular journeys or events. These are referred to as 'Martin MSS', 'Martin diaries' and 'Martin account' respectively.

The other main sources, apart from the various books and unpublished autobiographies hereunder noted, are interviews with people who knew Frank Buchman, conducted by Ailsa Hamilton, Graham Turner, Pierre Spoerri or the author.